How to plant and grow garlic?

How to plant and grow garlic?

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The characteristics of garlic

  • Type: vegetable plant
  • Height: up to 30cm
  • Flower color: pink, white
  • Desired exposure: sunny, semi-shaded
  • Type of soil: well drained, stony
  • Sanitizing: no

Characteristics and origin of garlic

garlic is a perennial vegetable plant belonging to the Amaryllidaceae family. Garlic is believed to be native to Asia, but this origin is uncertain. It was however from the eastern Caspian Sea that it spread throughout Asia. This plant is made up of many leaves which sheath it, and white or pink flowers depending on the variety.

Its head is made up of several pods, but also cloves, small bulbs that form next to the main bulb. Its long leaves are a pale green color.

Garlic is above all a plant used as a condiment. Garlic used in cooking is called common garlic or cultivated garlic.

Cultivated garlic is available in white, purple or pink varieties. The white and purple varieties are precocious and hardy. They are planted in the fall and are rather intended for rapid consumption. The third variety is planted in spring and keeps much longer.

There are two subspecies of garlic, spring garlic and fall garlic, which are named after their planting period. Spring garlic is generally pink, like the Rose d'Auvergne. There is also thewild garlic, or bear's garlic, which grows in the undergrowth. Thewild garlic is recognized by its small white flowers and its strong smell.

Garlic plantation

It is recommended to plant garlic in a sunny location. In France, the planting garlic must be carried out in May, the sprouted garlic can be bought in a garden center. It is harvested during the summer, in July and August. In warmer regions, it is possible to extend the planting until the fall.

Garlic is a very rustic vegetable, which tolerates temperatures reaching -15 ° C.

It is best to plant your garlic in light, loosened, permeable and deep soil. It is mainly intended for planting in a vegetable patch.

Garlic cultivation and care

Ranging from five to twelve centimeters, this vegetable plant is mainly cultivated for its bulb, which is a very popular condiment in cooking. Garlic, which is cultivated quite simply, however requires a well-drained and rather calcareous soil, because it does not support humidity.

Pods purchased in grocery stores cannot be replanted because they are generally treated with pesticides.

Whatever the period of planting garlic, it should be harvested eight to nine months later, when the leaves begin to wilt. The pods must then be allowed to dry out of the ground. Once harvested, the garlic can be stored in dried braids.

Garlic diseases

Garlic is the victim of various diseases and the attack of parasites. The growing garlic must therefore be accompanied by preventive measures to fight against its enemies such as white rot and truffle fly.

Garlic particularly dreads:

  • rust : it causes yellow or red spots. As soon as the spots appear, the plant is sprayed with a nettle or horsetail manure.
  • onion anthomyia: it is a small white worm that infests the contents of the bulb. There is no cure. Pull out and burn diseased plants.
  • the fat : it causes weathering of cloves and yellowing of the leaves. Avoid excessively wet soils.
  • garlic ringworm: a small green caterpillar attacks the leaves in early summer. Destroy and burn the affected leaves.

Use and benefits of garlic

garlic contains many vitamins like vitamins A, B, C and E. It is also known to have beneficial effects on the cardiac system and on high blood pressure.

Garlic has also been surrounded by superstitions for thousands of years. He has a reputation for warding off the evil eye, vampires, witches, etc.