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Characteristics of the cherry tree
- Type: fruit tree
- Height: From 10 to 20 m, from 20 to 40 m
- Flower color: white
- Fruit name: merise
- Desired exposure: sunny
- Type of soil: normal, stony
- Foliage: spent
- sanitizer: No
- variety: prunus avium, prunus avium “plena”, prunus cesarus (morello cherry)
Origins and peculiarities of the cherry tree
Also called " wild cherry " or "bird cherry ", the cherry tree (Prunus Avium) is a fruit tree belonging to the Rosaceae family, which takes its name from the Latin" Amarus cerasus ", meaning" bitter cherry ".
Native to the Asian continent, Europe and North Africa, the cherry tree is one of the oldest fruit trees on the planet. Archaeological excavations thus trace its presence to the Neolithic period! The culture of its fruit, the cherry, dates back to the beginning of the 4th century.
With a thin bark and up to 25 meters high, the cherrywood remains a wild tree which grows and develops in a natural way, and which finds its place perfectly in hedges (even if it is possible to plant it isolated in a garden). In autumn, the leaves of the cherry tree ignite and pass from a rather bland green to a superb orange-red!
In terms of wood, the cherry tree is a tree much appreciated by cabinetmakers for its color close to mahogany. It is often used for making furniture, chairs and pipes.
Uses of the cherry, the fruit of the cherry tree
The cherry fruit, the Sweet Cherry, looks like a small dark red cherry, whose taste is a little less sweet than that of cherries. They are harvested between June and July, when the fruits are almost black.
Once harvested, the cherries can give rise to many recipes, since it is possible to make sorbets, coulis, jams, jellies, but also the famous Kirsch!
Fans can also taste the natural cherry, but beware: once picked, the fruit does not keep very long, even in the refrigerator. Better to eat it quickly, or cook it!
And there is no question of throwing the tails of the cherries: in infusion or decoction, they have diuretic properties.
Thecherry tree can live for more than a century and develop a trunk exceeding 50 centimeters in diameter. For it to reach such dimensions, it must be planted at the edge of the forest in humus and well-drained soil.
The cherry tree is a tree which likes in the humid grounds, being able to be acid or calcareous. It is a tree that loves light and is not afraid of frost (tolerant of temperatures up to -30 ° C).
In order for it to flourish, the cherry tree also needs fairly deep soil; if not, it may become dry.
Regarding the planting time, it is advisable to plant a wild cherry tree during the cold season (November, December, January or February) but outside the frost period.
Watering and maintenance of the cherry tree
When used as a rootstock for the cherry plant, care should be taken to water it well in summer (young plants are very sensitive to drought) and to weed around the tree on 1m² for 3 years following the planting of the tree.
In the spring, you can bring compost to the soil. In winter, pruning will remove dead wood and those that deprive it of light. To avoid large interlacing between the branches and knots, it is advisable to cut the side branches which are more than 3 cm in diameter.
Birch diseases and pests
Among the main enemies of the cherry tree in a garden, we can identify: aphids that feed on its young leaves in spring, as well as rot, gum or bacterial canker.